Noticing that the Kantian account of experience creates a vital tension between the roles of pure intelligence and pure object as noumenal realities, Fichte argued that the balance between the two cannot thesis on kant maintained. Schelling and Objective Reality Another significant step in the transformation of idealism may be clearly seen in the writings of Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling. More willing than Fichte to preserve the tension between knower and known, subject and object, ego and non-ego, Schelling attempted an adequate description of their intimate interdependence with each other. Even more than Aristotle and the Stoics, Hegel believed that the study of logic is an investigation into the fundamental structure of reality itself.
Subjective Spirit Considered as subjective, Spirit may be observed, through truths about human nature described by the discipline of psychology, in the structure of thought exhibited by each individual human being. Objective Spirit Considered objectively, Spirit involves the interaction among many selves that are the proper subject of ethics and social or political theory. Once again, of course, Hegel maintained that a correct understanding of these fields is to be derived not by generalizing from what we observe, but rather by tracing the dialectic through new triads. Absolute Spirit Finally, when considered most purely, as absolute in itself, Spirit is just the historical process of human thought toward ever-greater awareness of the fundamental unity of all reality. Absolute, the process of development by means of which the Weltgeist comes to know itself. Answering the Question: What is Enlightenment?
In this essay, Kant proposed a peace program to be implemented by governments. Three Definitive Articles would provide not merely a cessation of hostilities, but a foundation on which to build a peace. Kant’s essay in some ways resembles modern democratic peace theory. Kant claims that republics will be at peace not only with each other, but are more pacifist than other forms of government in general. The general idea that popular and responsible governments would be more inclined to promote peace and commerce became one current in the stream of European thought and political practice. Various projects for perpetual peace have relied on one leg – either claiming that it is sufficient to produce peace, or that it will create the other two.